Water masses and fronts in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand by Thomas Joannes Houtman Download PDF EPUB FB2
WATER MASSES AND FRONTS IN THE SOUTHERN OCEAN SOUTH OF NEW ZEALAND ABSTRACT The fine structure of the Antarctic Convergence and its adjoining water masses has been plotted and ex'.1mined. Westerly winds lie nearly always in a northerly position with respect to the Circumpolar Current axis south of New Z_ealand.
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Water masses and fronts in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand. [Wellington] Dept. of. Circulation and Water Masses of the Southern Ocean: A Review Lionel Carter1, I. McCave2 and Michael J.
Williams3 1Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University, P.O. BoxWellington, New Zealand 2Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2. Water Masses and Fronts in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand by Houtman, T.j.
at Pemberley Books Theme Oxley Nepal Slate Thistle Currency GBP (£) US$ EURO YEN. Fronts and upper ocean thermal variability south of New Zealand G. BUDILLON 1 * and S.R. RINTOUL 2 1 Università di Napoli “Parthenope”, Istituto di Meteorologia e.
SOUTHERN OCEAN FRONTS Despite various definitions of the Southern Ocean (e.g., Lazarus & Caulet ; Belkin & Gordon ), it is conveniently treated here as including all antarctic and subantarctic water masses south of the Subtropical Front which, in the New Zealand region, presently lies near °S latitude (Fig.
The Southern Ocean is a key. and the Southern Ocean. About 10 Sv of subantarctic water spreads north to 36– 38S, then toward the southern tip of New Zealand. Circulation and water masses of the southwest Pacific.
Western Boundary Current (DWBC) carries a mix of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and Lower Circumpolar. Deep Water (LCDW) northwards east of New Zealand along the ﬂank of the Kermadec Ridge.
As this water ﬂows. north, its properties become modiﬁed and eventually some upwells and returns south as Paciﬁc Deep Water (PDW). New Zealand is bathed from the west by three major water masses. The boundaries of these masses are called fronts.
These can be seen in the diagram as the Tasman Front (TF), Subtropical Front (STF) and Subantarctic Front (SAF). The Tasman and Subtropical fronts are relatively warm surface currents. SOUTHERN OCEAN FRONTS Despite various definitions of the Southern Ocean (e.g., Lazarus & Caulet ; Belkin & Gordon ), it is conveniently treated here as including all antarctic and subantarctic water masses south of the Subtropical Front which, in the New Zealand region, presently lies near 43– 45°S latitude (Fig.
The Southern Ocean is a key. In this study, the important role of extratropical cyclones and fronts for the atmospheric freshwater flux over the Southern Ocean is analyzed. centrations relative to the Southern Ocean fronts south of Australia and New Zealand, where we have good in situ data for comparison.
By averaging the surface chlorophyll distri-butions along streamlines, we illustrate how the ACC fronts define zones with similar chlorophyll concentrations and seasonal cycles.
However, in contrast to earlier. In addition, intermediate and deep water masses are formed by physical processes in the Southern Ocean. New Zealand sits at the cross roads between the warm, subtropical waters from the north and the cold, subantarctic waters from the south.
These waters meet and mix at the subtropical front, the northern boundary of the Southern Ocean. The Subtropical Front (STF) is the boundary between cold subantarctic water masses of the Southern Ocean to the south and warm subtropical water masses of the South Pacific to the north.
The Subtropical Front is important for New Zealand as it is characterized by enhanced biological productivity making it an important area for New Zealand Fisheries. Cold water that sinks at high latitudes upwells along surfaces of constant density that connect the deep ocean to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean, where water masses can interact with the atmosphere, exchanging heat and gases before being sent back to the ocean depths for decades to millennia (e.g., Marshall and Speer, ).
Seven holes were therefore drilled east of New Zealand to determine the stratigraphy, sedimentary systems, and paleoceanography of the DWBC, ACC, and related water masses and fronts. The sites comprised a transect of water depths from to m and spanned a. and south of New Zealand As part of International Southern Ocean Studies (isos) in the region east and south of New Zealand, a cruise aboard Wv Knorr was carried out from 12 Novem-ber to 9 December (figure 1) to study the dynamics of eddies and of interleaving water masses and to assess their effects on the circulation and water mass.
Regions of water in the ocean are organised by temperature and salinity, the boundaries between them are called fronts.
In the Southern Ocean there are two main fronts the Subantarctic Front (SAF) and Antarctic Polar Front (APF). The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays a crucial role in the Southern Ocean, and a knowledge of its structure and variability is essential for understanding global climate changes (Sloyan and Rintoul ; Toggweiler and Russell ; Morrison and Hogg ; Wang et al.
).Its path between subtropical and subpolar circulations is delineated by the Subtropical Front (STF) and the.
Figure 1: Ocean circulation in the South Pacific and Southern Ocean and ambient water-mass patterns at the location of the sediment cores used in this study.
a. A front is simply the way forecasters represent the boundary between two different air masses. It may be moving, in which case the front is named by the advancing air mass – cold or warm – or it can be stationary, with neither air mass advancing. In Australia cold fronts are far more common than warm fronts.
Between these water masses are boundaries called fronts. At the ocean surface most fronts show sharp changes in temperature and/or salinity. Sunset on the Southern Ocean Adapted from material by Michael Williams by Donald Reid, in association. Hokianga-Nui-A-Kupe means 'the place of Kupe's great return'.
Many iwi (Maori tribes) trace their ancestry back to the legendary Polynesian explorer Kupe who, with his crew, voyaged deep into the southern ocean to find New Zealand.
Northland iwi claim the first landfall of Kupe's waka was on the shores of the Hokianga Harbour. two major land masses (North Island and South Island) and a number of smaller islands including Stewart Island located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The two main islands are divided by a 22km stretch of water called the Cook Strait. New Zealand is located approximately 1,km east of. Oceanic fronts divide the Southern Ocean into water masses with different physical characteristics, particularly in terms of temperature and salinity 1 which have given rise to different.
Unlike the other Southern Ocean myctophids, E. antarctica is regarded as a polar specialist that is confined to waters south of the Antarctic Polar Front. This species appears to have a close association with sea ice in some regions of the Southern Ocean (Indian Ocean sector), with the marginal sea ice zone seemingly important for larval.
Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warming world: Using Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, and Mn/Ca in foraminifera to track surface ocean water masses during the last deglaciation Julene P.
Marr School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current System ments in Drake Passage and southeast of New Zealand to the entire circumpolar belt suggested tion, formation and modification of Southern Ocean water masses to be quantified for the first time, as discussed in Section Observations.
The ocean-atmosphere flux of carbon dioxide in subantarctic surface water (SASW) east of New Zealand has been determined using data from bi-monthly cruises on a time series transect for 8 years.
The 60 km long transect extends from the coast (°S °E) to a station at °S °E. Sea surface temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations and pCO2 have been measured.
Figure gives a summary of water masses in the world ocean. in other words, flow of Antarctic Bottom Water in the eastern South Atlantic Ocean is southward, from the equator toward the pole. In the Pacific Ocean, input is mainly along °W (east of New Zealand), followed by spreading east and westward in the northern hemisphere.Water in the Southern Ocean south of, for example, New Zealand, resembles the water in the Southern Ocean south of South America more closely than it resembles the water in the Pacific Ocean.
The Southern Ocean has typical depths of between 4, and 5, m (13, ft) over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water.South of New Zealand, the Southern Ocean’s westerly winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which flows continuously around the globe.
This is the world's strongest ocean current, reaching down 4 kilometres to the ocean floor and transporting about times the volume of water .